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What Is Premenstrual Tension: Diagnosis And Treatments

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is the condition experienced by women a week or two before the actual menstruation. Women deal with hormonal changes in their bodies ahead of this phase. These changes lead to mood swings which are common symptoms in women during periods. Other period symptoms include fatigue, bloating, and headaches. 

Premenstrual tension aggravates serotonin present in your body and controls your mood. However, it varies from person to person. In this article, we will discuss PMS mood swings, things that trigger them, their numerous types, medication, and the treatment required to repair them.

A] What is Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) & Why Does It Happen?

Changes in mood one or two weeks before the period is known as Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). The reason for the occurrence of PMS is changes in female hormones that tend to happen every month. Serotonin that regulates the mood doesn’t comply with these hormonal changes, ultimately leading to mood swings. 

Genetics along with your lifestyle can also build up to the Premenstrual symptoms. The fluctuations in the estrogen and progesterone levels contribute to the syndrome as it disrupts the menstrual cycle and affects neurotransmitters present in the brain. The neurotransmitters that send signals in the body through the nerves get disturbed during periods.

B] What Are The Different Types of PMS Mood Swings


1. Emotional Symptoms

Women not only deal with physical changes but also emotional shifts in their bodies during the menstruation phase of the month. Emotional symptoms such as stress, anxiety, and depression are caused to trouble women. These emotional issues before menstruation can be resolved by meditation or yoga.

2. Physical Symptoms

Premenstrual syndrome is a combination of both emotional and physical symptoms. Physical symptoms such as tiredness, bloating, and breast tenderness give rise to another type of PMS mood swings. These issues can be resolved by physical exercise, breathing exercises, and a proper diet. 

3. Behavioral Symptoms

PMS also triggers behavioral changes in the body. Behavioral symptoms such as oversensitivity, irritability, and changes in sleep patterns possess one of the three types of PMS mood swings. This is similar to emotional symptoms as both target the brain and mental health of women.

C] What Are The Factors Contributing to PMS Mood Swings

1. Hormonal Changes

Hormonal changes before the period is natural for women. These changes are one of the factors contributing to PMS mood swings. Many other changes take place in the body due to these hormonal changes. Mood changes occur when there is a sudden dip in the hormones. You might feel anger or sadness at the same time during this phase of menstruation.

2. Neurotransmitter Imbalances

The neurotransmitter is a messenger in the body that regulates emotions. Hormonal changes accompany fluctuations in neurotransmitters which is another factor that contributes to PMS mood swings. The messenger transmits the message to our body cells, so an imbalance will lead to a disruption for muscles to take action.

3. Psychological Factors

It is okay to have anxiety before menstruation! Various Psychological factors come into the picture during menstruation. Some of these contributing to PMS mood swings are stress, anxiety, and other mental issues. These psychological factors are interrelated with hormonal changes as they lead to PMS mood swings directly or indirectly.

4. Lifestyle and Environmental Factors

As mentioned earlier, lifestyle can play a pivotal role in contributing to PMS mood swings. Diet, workout, and sleep quality all resonate with our Lifestyle. These factors are to be considered and maintained on a priority basis in order to eradicate the future occurrence of PMS mood swings.

D] Medication Treatment


1. Antidepressants

Antidepressants can prove to be beneficial if self-care or other treatments don’t work out. Antidepressants help serotonin present in the body to stabilize the mood. This medication helps to reduce symptoms of Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and assists in treating PMS-related mood swings. Antidepressants have a basic use of reducing emotional symptoms such as fatigue, depression, and uneasiness. Excessive use of antidepressants is not recommended due to certain side effects it can bring to a person during menstruation.

2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

During or before periods, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can be chosen for relieving cramps, a very common PMS disorder symptom. NSAIDs are not only useful in the treatment of Period problems but also to treat inflammation and pain-associated conditions. The conditions such as a normal headache and mild or strong fever are also repaired using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

E] Self-Care Treatment

1. Exercise

Doctors do recommend avoiding medications as they come with various side effects. Thus, it is important to opt for some self-care treatment, and exercise tops this list. Exercise helps you to remain physically fit. Working out can really help you burn excessive calories present in the body that can lead to problems like bloating. Engaging yourself in physical exercises will make you energetic and reduce your mood swings before periods.

2. Small, Frequent Meals

Instead of taking large meals, you should take small and frequent meals. This will help you feel less hungry and also reduce bloating risk. Small and frequent meals can work out as a reminder that you need to eat every 2-3 hours. This activity stabilises blood sugar levels inside the body that are necessary to be maintained during periods to avoid further complications.

3. Calcium Supplements

According to some studies, calcium intake can help reduce premenstrual tension. Calcium supplements aid depression and anxiety and should be consumed on priority during or before the start of the menstrual phase of the month. Consuming dairy products such as milk, eggs, and yogurt on a daily basis can improve calcium intake in the body, leading to a reduction in PMS mood swings.

4. Avoid Sweets, Caffeine And Alcohol


Excessive caffeine can prove to be harmful for you during periods and this also can be seen as an impact of heavy periods. Though the condition can be treated through treatments for Menorrhagia, caffeine is to be strictly avoided.  Apart from that, one must also refrain from the consumption of alcohol and sweets. Consuming sweets will lead to improved blood sugar levels that are to be ignored to remain safe from issues like nausea and loss of consciousness. 

5. Stress Management

Stress management is the most common and effective technique to reduce symptoms of PMS mood swings. Stress can be called the root of PMS mood symptoms as emotional imbalances are directly linked with it. Managing stress means managing overall health during menstruation. Stress management techniques can also be called one of the PMS disorder treatments.


Premenstrual tension is a condition that needs to be recovered or repaired to stay away from mood swings. PMS mood swings can take a severe form if ignored. It is crucial to follow certain treatments during the premenstrual symptoms. Understanding the factors contributing to mood symptoms during or before periods is advised to find the best solution. 

This is a mild condition that can be resolved with some self-care treatments, but consulting a doctor is always a good choice. Your private gynaecologist in London helps you with proper guidance and treatments during PMS mood swings and related issues.

Neha Goel

Neha Goel, a Psychology alumna and MBA graduate from CASS Business School, London, brings together her expertise as a Reiki Practitioner and Practice Manager. She integrates psychology and business strategies to foster holistic well-being and personal development.