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laparoscopic surgery

What Is Laparoscopy?

Termed as ‘minimal invasive surgery’, laparoscopy is a surgical diagnostic procedure used to examine the organs inside the abdomen. A Pelvic laparoscopy, specifically, includes an examination of the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes and it is quite a common procedure used worldwide for both diagnosis as well as treatment of various conditions.

How Is Laparoscopy Performed?

Laparoscopy is performed under general Anesthesia. Once you are sedated, the following procedure is performed:

  • The surgeon makes a small cut (incision) near the navel and inserts a tube through which carbon dioxide is pumped. This is done in order to expand your abdominal cavity, which makes it easier for the doctor to check the organs inside your body.
  • Next, a slender, lighted telescope known as a laparoscope is inserted through the tube which helps relay images on the monitor, giving the surgeon a clear view of the whole area.
  • Lastly, depending on the procedure, whether it is a diagnostic or surgery, the surgeon may act accordingly and once done, he will release the carbon dioxide out of your abdomen and close the incision with stitches, followed by a dressing.

When Is Laparoscopy Needed?

Laparoscopy is performed in case of the following symptoms or conditions:

  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Pelvic Pain.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Endometriosis.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy.
  • Fibroids (Myomectomy).
  • Ovarian Cysts (Cystectomy is often performed Laparoscopically).
  • Hysterectomy (may be performed for heavy periods, fibroids or Endometrial cancer).


Advantages of Laparoscopy

  • Laparoscopy is a low-risk, minimally invasive procedure and only involves a small incision.
  • It is less painful and thus requires minimal pain medication.
  • Risk of wound infection is limited.
  • It has a shorter healing time than a open/traditional surgery and results in less post-operative scarring.
  • It reduces the risk of Thrombosis-embolism. (Blood clot in legs or lungs)
  • It offers surgeons a better visualisation and access to internal organs.
  • Due to its quick recovery period, the patient can return to the normal everyday activities almost immediately.


Risks Associated with Laparoscopy

While the common side effects of Laparoscopy are a bladder infection and skin rash, major complications are quite rare, however, some of the most noted risk associated with Laparoscopy includes:

  • Bleeding and Haematoma (collection of blood or bruising).
  • Inflammation or infection.
  • Injury to internal organs.
  • Risk of conversion to laparotomy (open operation).